( Page Posted Sept. 2004)
(Page posted June 2008)
(Page posted July 2011)
( Page Posted May 2013, Scroll Down for Summary)
( Page Posted October , 2017)
Part IX: A Human Equation of State at a Thermodynamic Limit
( Page Posted February, 2019)
( New Page Posted February, 2020)
This Website presents applications of standard compressible flow theory to various energy flows. It arises from treating the energy flows and associated transformation of matter as being compressible.
The Site has a double purpose. First it is intended to serve as a detailed adjunct to the scientific aspects of a Shroud of Turin Science Website( www.shroudscience.info) where the theory of compressible energy flow is applied to the radiation theory of image formation on the Shroud.
Second it is a stand alone, expanded presentation of the theory of compressible energy flow to various applications.
In Part I, the theory of compressible flow is applied to the nature of relativity in physics. Full text at: Compressible Photon Flow and the Results of Michelson-Morley Type Experiments
In Part II, the theory of compressible flow is applied to the initial stages of formation of tornadoes. Full text at: Tornado-genesis by an Isentropic Transformation of Hest Differences into Wind Speed
In Part III, the theory of compressible flow is applied to a clean energy, air motor invention. Full text at: Progress in Clean Energy Production by Isentropic Amplification of Linear Air Flow
Section 3: To be posted in the near future
In Part IV, the theory of compressible flow is applied to a new insight into tornado intensity limits and tornado intensity prediction. Full text at: Tornado Structure, Intensity Limits and Intensity Prediction
In Part V the problem of Dualism in soul/body theories is reexamined
In Part VI a new origin of life mechanism is proposed which supplies Irwin Schrödinger’s negative entropy proposal with a physical mechanism namely that of stress/strain waves in the cell cytoplasm.
In Part VII the new origin of life theory is extended to include Human Life
In Part VIII compressible flow principles are used to formulate Equations of State for all Cosmic Fields. A highly symmetric set emerges which would all be interconnected but for one central exception.
Copyright © 2017, Bernard A. Power
Tornado Structure, Intensity Limits
and Intensity Prediction
Part 1: New Insights into Tornado Structure and Wind Speed
1.0 Introduction: Some insights into the transformation of atmospheric heat to tornado wind speed
1.1 Rare miniature whirlwind occurring in warm, clear weather over a calm, cool lake
1.2 The structure of this strange, tiny whirlwind. Reasons why it is not a heat engine
1.3 An alternative explanation: The vortex flow involves an isentropic speed-up
1.4 A suggested sequence for the evolution of the mini-vortex
Conclusions: Part 1
Part 2. Tornado Structure, Intensity Limits and Intensity Prediction
2.1 Vortex feature in general
2. 2 Vortex motions; The Rankine Combined Vortex
2.3 The source of the rotation needed in the vortex core
2.4 The driving pressure difference and “throughflow”, or mass rate of flow of the tornado
2.5 Other types of tornado- like vortices
2.6 Satellite vortices, sub-vortices and “suction” vortices
2.7 Summary of main tornado features
2.8 A method of estimating tornado wind intensity limits from air mass humidity
2.9 A unifying, vortex structural and thermodynamic element: A flow condensation discontinuity
Tornados are the most violent wind storms known, sometimes reaching wind speeds of around 250 to 300 mph. ( 112 to 134 m/s) . However, there seems to be no compelling theoretical reason why they shouldn’t continue to increase in speed right up to the sonic speed of around 700 mph. ( 313 m/s). Fortunately for us, they don’t. So the question arises: What limits tornado wind intensity to less than 300 mph?
Tornadoes usually are accompanied by, or grow out of, violent thunderstorm clouds whose complexity makes it very difficult to know where to start for an adequate understanding of their structure and mechanism. In addition, tornadoes are seemingly a composite of two different types of air flows having opposite flow properties--- a small central core of rotating fluid is smoothly surrounded by a much larger area of circulating but non-rotating fluid, yet all the while the tornado somehow maintains a unified continuous flow system through the two different types of air flow, from inflow at ground level to outflow in the parent storm cloud above. It is quite puzzling.
However, a fortuitous observation of a very simple, rare, mini- vortex over a calm cool lake in fine weather in the Laurentian Mountains, north of Montreal, points to one unexpected feature, namely that vortex swirl velocities are apparently produced by only small temperature changes of a degree or two in an adiabatic/isentropic vortex inflow process , rather than by the inefficient heat engine process usually proposed, which conclusion should apply to full scale tornadoes as well.
Three new insights will be the subject of this Website. The first is that the main speed-up process in a tornado may be a clear air, isentropic/adiabatic transformation of small amounts of internal heat of the air flow into the observed high vortex wind speeds, and second, that this high speed- up, isentropic flow process is terminated by the formation of the tornado funnel cloud which releases latent heat of condensation into the vortex as the funnel cloud forms and thereby stops the high speed- up, isentropic phase completely and allows a heat engine process to take over; this presents the possibility of predicting the general level of tornado intensity on a given day from the relative humidity of the air masses involved. Third , this same condensation discontinuity in the flow also introduces fluid rotation directly into the core where it is needed to stabilise the vortex.
We should note that an enormous amount of data and theoretical insight already exists on tornado structure and dynamics, and that the new insights offered here must be evaluated within the framework of this existing knowledge.
For full text go to: Part IV: Tornado Structure, Intensity Limits and Intensity Prediction
Copyright © 2013 Bernard A. Power